The environment

There are many different words referring to features of the environment. Here are some arranged on small to large scales.

brook —> stream —> river hillock —> hill —> mountain cove —> bay —> gulf

copse —> wood —> forest puddle —> pond —> lake footpath —> lane —> road

You have to be careful about the use of ‘the’ with features of the environment.

Look at this encyclopaedia entry about Iceland and note any words that refer to particular features of the environment.

Iceland An island republic in the North Atlantic. The landscape consists largely of barren plains and mountains, with large ice fields particularly in the south west. The island has active volcanoes and is known for its thermal springs and geysers. With less than 1% of the land suitable for growing crops, the nation’s economy is based on fishing, and fish products account for 80% of the exports. Area: 103,000km2. Population : 227000. Capital: Reykjavik.

Here are some other nouns which are useful when talking about the environment. Check their meanings with a dictionary if necessary.
– Where land meets sea: coast shore beach estuary cliff cape peninsula
– Words connected with rivers: source tributary waterfall mouth valley gorge
– Words connected with mountains: foot ridge peak summit glacier

There are many environmental problems in the world today. Check with a dictionary if you do not know any of the terms below.
air, river and sea pollution overfishing the greenhouse effect the destruction of the ozone layer destruction of the rainforests battery farming waste disposal overpopulation