Prepositions – In Back Of

1. In back of means located behind. Pattern 1: noun + in back of + nounThere is a beautiful tree in back of our house. Pattern 2: verb + in back of + nounYour sister sits in back of me in class.

Prepositions – Except

1. Except means excluding.Everyone went to the movies except me. We work every day except Sunday.

Prepositions – Despite/In Spite Of

1. Despite indicates an illogical occurrence.We had a good time despite the bad weather. 2. In spite of has the same meaning and usage as despite. We had a good time in spite of the bad weather.

Prepositions – Close To

1. Close to means near.Your house is close to the metro station. They are sitting close to each other. 2. Close to indicates a very friendly or intimate relationship.She is very close to her older sister. 3. Close to (adverb) can mean almost.I wrote close to fifty invitations this morning.

Prepositions – Beyond

1. Beyond means on the other side of.Our street is beyond the traffic light.If you are traveling west, New Mexico is beyond Texas. 2. Beyond means past the limits of. Pattern 1: be + beyond + noun The sick child was beyond help.That situation is beyond my understanding. Expression:beyond one—not understandable by someone This puzzle…

Prepositions – Besides

1. Besides means excepting.Everyone besides me is at the beach. 2. Besides means in addition to.Besides all of my friends, all of their brothers and sisters are there, too.

Prepositions – Beside

1. Beside means next to. Pattern: verb + beside + nounPlease come over here and sit beside me. Verbs commonly used with this pattern:be, kneel, lie (down), rest, sit (down), sleep, stand, walk, work 2. Expressions beside the point—irrelevantHe always wastes time at our meetings by talking about things that are beside the point. beside…

Prepositions – Beneath

1. Beneath means under and concealed by.My glasses were beneath the newspaper.The daffodils sprouted beneath the snow. 2. Beneath can mean less worthy than.Now that she is rich and famous, she thinks her family is beneath her. 3. Beneath can mean unlikely, because of goodness or pride. Pattern 1: it + be + beneath +…

Prepositions – Below

1. Below means lower in number or degree than.Your body temperature is ninety-seven degrees; it is below normal, which is ninety-eight point six. 2. Below can mean lower in rank or level than.In our company the supervisors are below the directors.Our offices are on the fourth floor; theirs are below ours, on the third floor….

Prepositions – Behind

1. Behind means in the rear of.The trash can is behind the chair.My friend sits behind me in class. 2. Behind can mean less advanced than.Miss Thompson’s class is studying lesson three; the other classes are studying Lesson four. Miss Thompson’s class is behind the other classes. 3. Behind can mean left in the past.He…

Prepositions – Before

1. Before means earlier than.We must leave before four o’clock. 2. Before can mean in a more important position than.She is so ambitious that she puts her job before her family. 3. Before can mean facing.The handsome singer had many adoring fans before him. 4. Before can mean in the future.The bride smiled as she…

Prepositions – Back to/Back From

1. Back to indicates return. Pattern 1: verb + back to + noun of place or timePlease go back to the beginning of your story.The children went back to the museum to see the new exhibit. Verbs often used before back to:crawl, drive, fly, go, hark, jump, look, move, race, run, think, walk Pattern 2:…

Prepositions – At

1. At can indicate location Pattern 1: at + the + place within a city or townThe women are at the supermarket. Nouns commonly used with this pattern:apartment, bus stop, factory, hospital, hotel, house, mall, office, park, parking lot, restaurant, station, store, theater, university Pattern 2: at + an addressShe lives at 3757North 52nd Street,…

Prepositions – As

1. As means in the role of. Pattern 1: verb + as + nounShe is a trained teacher, but she works as a secretary in our office. Typical verbs used before as:act, serve, substitute, volunteer, work Pattern 2: verb + noun + as + nounWe have selected you as the captain of the team. Typical…

Prepositions – Around

1. Around means following a boundary, in a circular direction. Pattern: motion verb + around + nounWe walked around the block. Verbs commonly used before around: drive, fly, race, ride, run, skip, travel, walk Nouns commonly used after around: block, building, house, room, track, world 2. Around (adverb) indicates movement in a circular direction in…

Prepositions – Among

1. Among can mean surrounded by. Pattern: verb + among + plural (three or more) nounThey camped in the woods among the trees. 2. Among can mean with each other. Pattern: verb + among + plural (three or more) nounThe children quarreled among themselves. Typical verbs before among:argue, celebrate, debate, discuss something, fight, play, share…

Prepositions – Along

1. Along means following the boundary of something. Pattern: verb + along + nounWe walked along the water’s edge at the beach last night. Typical verbs before along: jog, stroll, run, walk 2. Along with means together. Pattern: verb + along with + nounHe used to sing along with me. Typical verbs used before along…

Prepositions – Against

Against means touching something or somebody for support. Pattern 1: verb + against + nounThe man was leaning against his car. Typical verbs used before against: hang, lean, lie, rest, sleep Pattern 2: verb + noun + against + nounThey held the mirror against the wall. Typical verbs used before against:butt, hold, keep, lay, lean,…

Using Capital Letters

Here are some useful capitalization rules to follow. Capitalize the first word of every sentence. Your poem was read at this morning’s assembly. Begin the session now. Capitalize the pronoun I as a word and in a contraction. This card is something that I cherish. I’ve a funny story to tell you. Capitalize proper nouns…

The Apostrophe

Here are useful rules for the apostrophe. Learn them well, and use them in your writing. Use an apostrophe to form the possessive of singular and plural nouns. Add an apostrophe and an s to form the possessive of a singular noun. Joe + ’s = Joe’s car day + ’s = day’s effort flag…

Periods Question Marks and Exclamation Marks

Use a period at the end of a declarative sentence, a sentence that is a request, and one that includes a mild command. Our blue couch will soon be replaced. (declarative sentence) Please help me. (request) Let’s be quiet. (mild command) Use a period after abbreviations. Dr. (Doctor) Mr. (Mister) ft. (foot) in. (inch) Use…

Irregular Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs

Adjectives and adverbs of two or more syllables form their comparative and superlative degrees (or forms) in an irregular way. The rules below will help you understand and utilize these forms. ➲Use -er, more, or less to form the comparative degree of many two-syllable modifiers or describers. ➲ Adverbs that end in -ly always use…

Sound a like words Part Three

Here is the third set of sound-alike words. Study and use them well. plain: not adorned; piece of land She wore a plain dress to the event. The horses moved quickly across the plain. plane: a piece of aircraft How heavy is that plane with all those passengers aboard it now? principal: the school’s leader;…

Active and passive voices

Voice is a verb form that indicates if the sentence’s subject performs or receives an action. There are two types of voice—active voice and passive voice. ➲ If the sentence’s subject performs the action, the sentence is written in the active voice. ‘‘The pilot landed the plane’’ is written in the active voice since the…

Transitive and intransitive verbs

A transitive verb is an action verb that has a direct object. Remember that a direct object (a noun or a pronoun) answers the question Whom? or What? after the action verb. Thus, in the sentence, ‘‘The clown threw the toy into the air,’’ the verb, threw, is transitive because (A) it is an action…

the participle and participial phrase

➲ A word that looks like a verb, but functions as an adjective, is a participle. A participle is a type of verbal, a word that is formed from a verb, but functions as another part of speech. Common endings for participles are -ing (reading), -ed (returned), -en (broken), -d (said), -t (lent), and -n…

the verb

The verb, the fourth of the eight parts of speech, is an action word. Since all good writing starts with strong verbs, this part of speech is very important. The three basic types of verbs are the following: ➲ The action verb tells what action the sentence’s subject (or doer) per-forms, is performing, has performed,…

the pronoun

The pronoun, the second of the eight parts of speech, is a word that takes the place of a noun. ➲In the sentence, ‘‘Felipe is an intelligent student,’’ the noun, Felipe, can be replaced by the singular pronoun he. Thus, the new sentence reads, ‘‘He is an intelligent student.’’ ➲In the sentence, ‘‘We offered the…

the object of the preposition

The object of the preposition is the noun or pronoun that follows a prepo-sition and completes the prepositional phrase. The prepositional phrase can also includemodifiers. In the sentence, ‘‘The orange juice box was in the new refrigerator,’’ the prepositional phrase is ‘‘in the new refrigerator.’’ This phrase answers the question ‘‘Where (is the orange juice…