because and because of

[clause + because + clause because + clause, + clause because of + noun/pronoun] Because is a conjunction. It joins two clauses together. I was worried because Mary was late. Because I was tired, I went home. Because of is a preposition (used before a noun or a pronoun). I was late because of the…

be: progressive tenses

[I am being / you are being etc + adjective/noun] We can use this structure to talk about what people are/were doing, but not usually to say how they are/were feeling. Compare: You’re being stupid. ( = You’re doing stupid things.) I was being very careful. (= I was doing something carefully.) I m happy…

ache / pain / hurt

An ache is discomfort that continues for some time. It is usually associated with a specific part of the body, such as a headache, a stomachache, a toothache, and an earache. After you exercise, the next day your muscles will probably ache. An ache is usually not extremely strong, so you can try to ignore…

be + infinitive

[I am to… you are to… etc] We use this structure in a formal style to talk about plans and arrangements, especially when they are official. The President is to visit Nigeria next month. We are to get a 10 per cent wage rise in June. We also use the structure to give orders. Parents…

be with auxiliary do

[do + be + adjective/noun don’t + be + adjective/noun] Don’t be … is used to give people advice or orders. Don’t be afraid. Don’t be a fool! In affirmative sentences, we usually just use Be . . . Be careful! But Do be . . . is used for emphasis. Do be careful, please!!!…

at, in and on (time)

[ at + exact time in + part of day on + particular day at + weekend, public holiday in + longer period] Exact times I usually get up at six o’clock. I’ll meet you at 4.15. Phone me at lunch time. In informal English, we say What time . . . ? (At what…

at, in and on (place)

At is used to talk about position at a point. It’s very hot at the centre of the earth. Turn right at the next traffic-lights. Sometimes we use at with a larger place, if we just think of it as a point: a point on a journey, a meeting place, or the place where something…

as, when and while (things happening at the same time)

[As/When/While A was happening, B happened. B happened as/when/while A was happening.] As/When/While A was happening AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA (b) AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA B happened. We can use as, when, or while to say that a longer action or event was going on when something else happened. We usually use the past progressive tense (was/were + . . ….

as well as

[noun/adjective/adverb + as well as + noun/adjective/adverb clause + as well as -ing.. . As well as -ing… + clause] /As well as has a similar meaning to ‘not only … but also’. He’s got a car as well as a motorbike. She ‘s clever as well as beautiful. When we put a verb after…

as much/many … as …

We use as much … as .. . with a singular (uncountable) noun, and as many … as .. . with a plural. Compare: We need as much time as possible. We need as many cars as possible. As much/many can be used without a following noun. I ate as much as I wanted. Rest…

as if and as though

[as if/though + subject + present/past verb as if/though + subject + past verb with present meaning] As if and as though mean the same. We use them to say what a situation seems like. It looks as if/though it’s going to rain. I felt as if/though I was dying. We can use a past…

as and like

Similarity We can use like or as to say that things are similar. a. Like is a preposition. We use like before a noun or pronoun. [like + noun/pronoun] You look like your sister. (NOT … as your sister.) He ran like the wind. It’s like a dream. She’s dressed just like me. We use…

as, because and since (reason)

[as/because/since + clause + clause clause + as/because/since + clause] Because is used when we give the reason for something. Because I was ill for six months I lost my job. If the reason is the most important idea, we put it at the end of the sentence. Why am I leaving? I’m leaving because…

as…as …

{[as + adjective + as as + adverb + as] + noun/pronoun/clause} We use as … as … to say that two things are the same in some way. She’s as tall as her brother. Can a man run as fast as a horse? It’s not as good as I expected. We can use object…

articles: special rules and exceptions

Common expressions without articles Articles are not used in these expressions: to school at school from school to/at/from university/college to/at/in/into/from church to/in/into/out of bed/prison/hospital to/at/from work to/at sea to/in/from town at/from home for/at/to breakfast/lunch/dinner/supper at night by car/bus/bicycle/plane/train/tube/ boat on foot go to sleep watch television (TV) on TV Possessives A noun that is used…

articles: a and an; pronunciation of the

We do not usually pronounce /a/ before a vowel (a, e, /’, o, u). So before a vowel, the article a {lal) changes to an, and the changes its pronunciation from Compare: a rabbit , an elephant , the sea , the air We use an and the before a vowel sound— a pronounced vowel…

articles: countable and uncountable nouns

A singular countable noun normally has an article or other determiner with it. We can say a cat, the cat, my cat, this cat, any cat, either cat or every cat, but not just cat. (There are one or two exceptions Plural and uncountable nouns can be used without an article or determiner, or with…

articles: talking in general

We do not use the with uncountable or plural nouns to talk about things in general — to talk about all books, all people or all life, for example. The never means ‘all’. Compare: Did you remember to buy the books7 (= particular books which I asked you to buy) Books are expensive. (NOT The…

articles: the difference between a/an and the

Very simply: a/an just means ‘one of a class’ the means ‘you know exactly which one’. Compare: A doctor must like people. ( = any doctor, any one of that profession) My brother’s a doctor. ( = one of that profession) I’m going to see the doctor. ( = you know which one: my doctor)…

articles: the

The means something like ‘you know which one I mean’. It is used with uncountable, singular and plural nouns. the water (uncountable) the table (singular countable) the stars (plural countable) We use the: a. to talk about people and things that we have already mentioned. She’s got two children: a girl and a boy. The…

articles: a/an

A noun like house, engineer, girl, name refers to a whole class of people or things. We use a/an with a noun to talk about just one member of that class. (A/an means ‘one’.) She lives in a nice big house. My father is an engineer. (NOT My father is engineer.) A girl phoned this…

(a)round and about

We usually use round for movement or position in a circle, or in a curve. We all sat round the table. I walked round the car and looked at the whe ‘Where do you live?’ ‘Just round the corner. ‘ We also use round when we talk about going to all (or most) parts of…

appear

Appear can mean ‘seem’. In this case, it is a ‘copula verb’ , and is followed by an adjective or a noun. We often use the structure appear to be, especially before a noun, [subject + appear (to be) + adjective”] He appeared very angry. (NOT . . . very angrily.) [subject + appear to…

actual / current / present

Actual is very different from current and present. Current and present refer to things happening now (not in the past or future). Actual refers to things that are true (not things that are false). The current unemployment rate is 8%. This article claims that unemployment is at 5%, but the actual rate is around 8%….

any (= ‘it doesn’t matter which’)

Any can mean ‘it doesn’t matter which’; ‘whichever you like’. ‘When shall I come?’ Any time. ‘ ‘Could you pass me a knife?’ ‘Which one?’ ‘It doesn ‘t matter. Any one. ‘ We can use anybody, anyone, anything and anywhere in the same way. She goes out with anybody who asks her. ‘What would you…

another

[another + singular noun another + few/number + plural noun] Another is one word. He’s bought another car. {NOT an other car.) Normally, we only use another with singular countable nouns. Compare: Would you like another potato? Would you like some more meat? {NOT … another meat?) Would you like some more peas? (NOT ….

and after try, wait, go etc

We often use try and . . . instead of try to .. . This is informal Try and eat something — you’ll feel better if you do. I’ll try and phone you tomorrow morning. We only use this structure with the simple form try. It is not possible with tries, tried, or trying. Compare:…

all right

We usually write all right as two separate words in British English.( Alright is possible in American English ). Everything will be all right.

all, everybody and everything

We do not usually use all alone to mean ‘everybody’. Compare: All the people stood up. Everybody stood up. (NOT All stood up.) All can mean everything, but usually only in the structure all + relative clause ( = all (that) . . .). Compare: All (that) I have is yours (OR Everything ) Everything…

after (preposition); afterwards (adverb)

After is a preposition: it can be followed by a noun or an -ing form. We ate in a restaurant after the film. After seeing the film, we ate in a restaurant After is not an adverb: we do not use it with the same meaning as afterwards, then or after that. We went to…