Sick or Ill

Sick or Ill Don’t Say:He’s been sick for over a year. Say:He’s been ill for over a year. Note:We can also use sick before certain nouns The sick room, a sick note, sick leave We use the plural noun the sick to mean ill people Angela worked with (he sick on the streets of Birmingham….

neither, nor and not… either

We use neither and nor to mean ‘also not’. They mean the same. Neither and nor come at the beginning of a clause, and are followed by auxiliary verb + subject. [neither/nor + auxiliary verb + subject] I can’t swim. ‘ Neither can I. ‘(NOT I also can’t.) I don’t like opera.’ Nor do I….

then / than

Although these words are spelled differently and have different meanings, in fast spoken English they often sound the same: then and than. Than is used in comparatives: I’m older than my brother. A car is faster than a bicycle. I learned more from my parents than I learned from my teachers. Then is used in…

Using at the end instead of in the end

Using at the end instead of in the end Don’t Say:At the end they reached the city. Say:In the end they reached the city. Note:In the end means finally or at last at the end means at the farthest point or pan There’s an index at the end of this book. There ‘s a holiday…

all and whole

[all + determiner + noun] [determiner + whole + noun] 1. Whole means ‘complete’, ‘every part of’. All and whole can both be used with singular nouns. They have similar meanings, but the word order is different. Compare: Julie spent all the summer at home.         all my life Julie spent the…

Phrasal verbs: form and meaning

Formation A phrasal verb is a verb combined with an adverb or preposition, and occasionally with an adverb and preposition. The price of petrol may go up (= increase) again next week. He fell over (= fell to the ground) when he was running for the bus. She’s promised to find out (= learn/discover) the…

agenda / itinerary / schedule

An agenda is a list or program of things to be done. Workers who are well-organized will often have an agenda for meetings – a list of specific topics to discuss, or things to accomplish during the meeting. If something is “on the agenda” or “on your agenda,” it means that people are willing to…

and after try, wait, go etc

We often use try and . . . instead of try to .. . This is informal Try and eat something — you’ll feel better if you do. I’ll try and phone you tomorrow morning. We only use this structure with the simple form try. It is not possible with tries, tried, or trying. Compare:…

The possessive ending omitted

The possessive ending omitted Don’t Say:A hen’s egg is different from a pigeon. Say:A hen’s egg is different from a pigeon’s. Note:If the first noun in a comparison is in the possessive case, the second must also be m the possessive: My mother’s nose is bigger than my father’s

10 Phrases for Drinking (Alcohol)

1. It’s on me. (= I’ll buy you a drink)2. I’d like to make a toast. (= I’d like to honor a person/event/idea)3. Here’s to… (your health / the New Year / our success)!4. Another round of drinks, please.5. Put it on my tab. (tab = bill to pay later, before you leave)6. He’s a…

Communications

Letters: Don’t forget to put a stamp on the envelope. Don’t forget to post the letters Telephone and fax: Juan makes a lot of phone calls. He phones his girl friend every day. Jill sent me a fax yesterday. What is your phone/fax number? 330718 (= double three oh seven one eight) A typical phone…

10 Phrases for Saying Something is Easy & Difficult

1. It’s a piece of cake.2. It’s a cinch.3. It’s a breeze.4. Anyone can do it.5. There’s nothing to it.6. It’s hard.7. It’s a bit tricky.8. It’s really tough.9. It’s not a walk in the park.10. It’s very demanding. (= it takes a lot of time and energy)

Wrong use of the with material nouns

Wrong use of the with material nouns Don’t Say:The gold is a precious metal. Say:Gold is a precious metal. Note:Material nouns, used n a particular sense, require the definite article The coal from the Midlands exported to many countries. Don’t use any article with material nouns, If used in a general sense.

sentences fragments and run on sentences

A sentence can be a word (Stop!) or a group of words that must contain a subject (doer), a verb (action), and a complete thought. ➲ In the sentence, ‘‘Lorina washed her face,’’ the subject is Lorina, the verb is washed, and the group of words makes a complete thought. A fragment is a group…

Take revenge and Avenge

Take revenge and Avenge Don’t Say:I must avenge myself for what he did to me! Say:I must take revenge for what he did to me! Note:Avenge and revenge oneself are now only found in literary English. We usually use take revenge (on). We might also say He must have his revenge

And etc used instead of etc

And etc used instead of etc Don’t Say:I, you, we, and etc. are pronouns. Say:I, you, we, etc., are pronouns. Note:However, students are advised to avoid using etc. in an essay and to use phrases such as and other things, and so on instead. Etc. is the short form of et cetera, a Latin phrase…

Distance, size and dimension

Distance: The most common way of asking about distance is probably: How far is it? Here are two more common questions, and some expressions often used in the reply. Note: We can use far in a question or negative but not in a positive statement on its own, e.g. we don’t say ‘it’s far’, we…

Addition and contrast

In addition, moreover, etc. (X and Y) When you add a second piece of information in a sentence to support the first piece of information, you often use and, e.g.The food is excellent and very good value. When you put this information in two sentences, these link words and phrases are common: The food is…

have (got): possession, relationships etc

We can use have to talk about possession, relationships, illnesses, and the characteristics of people and things (for example in descriptions). We can use do in questions and negatives. They hardly have enough money to live on. Do you have any brothers or sisters? The Prime Minister had a bad cold. My grandmother didn’t have…

The subject misplaced in questions beginning with an interrogative word

The subject misplaced in questions beginning with an interrogative word Don’t Say:Why you were absent last Friday? Say:Why were you absent last Friday? Note:In questions beginning with interigative word like what, when, where, how, place he verb before the subject as in all questions.

Expressions With get

Get seems to be used all the time in spoken English. It has the following basic meanings: • receive, obtain or buy something, e.g. Please get me a newspaper when you’re in town; I got a letter from John today; She got top marks in her exam. • show a change in position – move…

say / tell / speak

Tell means “to give information to a person” – so tell (present) and told (past) are always followed by a person. Examples: Tell me about the movie. Did you like it? Peter, I told you not to eat any cookies before dinner! Did you tell Sam about what happened at school today? The police told…

-ing form or infinitive?

Some verbs and adjectives can be followed by an infinitive or by an -ing form, often with a difference of meaning. remember and forget We remember or forget doing things in the past — things that we did. Forget . . . -ing is used especially in the structure I’ll never forget . . ….

Have one’s hair cut, not cut one’s hair

Have one’s hair cut, not cut one’s hair Don’t Say:I’m going to cut my hair. Say:I’m going to have my hair cut. Note:Avoid I’ll make a o air of shoes(or a suit of clothes). Say instead I’ll have a pair of shoes (or a suit of clothes) made.

The same as/same that

The same as/same that Don’t Say:Amelia bought the same bag that me. Say:Amelia bought the same bag as me. Note:Sometimes we use that instead of who or which after same. He wore the same clothes that he wore on Sunday. After the same we use as unless it’s followed by a subordinate clause, in which…

once

When once has the indefinite meaning ‘at some time’, we use it to talk about the past, but not the future. Compare: I met her once in Venezuela. Once upon a time there were three baby rabbits . . . Come up and see me some time (NOT . . . once.) We must have…

past time: present perfect simple

Forms Affirmative Question Negative I have worked you have worked, etc have I worked? have you worked? etc I have not worked you have not worked, etc Meaning We use the present perfect simple to say that something in the past is connected with the present in some way. If we say that something has…

Describing people – character

Intellectual ability – Ability: intelligent bright clever smart shrewd able gifted talented brainy (colloquial) – Lacking ability: stupid foolish half-witted simple silly brainless daft dumb dim (the last four are predominantly colloquial words) – Clever, in a negative way, using brains to trick or deceive: cunning crafty sly Attitudes towards life – Looking on either…

In and At – At

In and At – At Don’t Say:My mother is staying in 66 Argyle Street. Say:My mother is staying at 66 Argyle Street. Note:We use at when we’re talking about an address, a public place or building (a bus slop, the Post Office, the library etc.) and cases in which the location urelpt’dnt but wtat we…