have + object + verb form

We often use the structure [have + object + verb form] It’s nice to have people smile at you in the street. We ‘ll soon have your car going. We use I won’thave + object + verb form to say that we refuse to allow or accept something. I won’t have you telling me what…

Angry for Sorry

Angry for Sorry Don’t Say:I was angry to hear of her death. Say:I was sorry to hear of her death.

short answers

When we answer yes/no questions, we often repeat the subject and auxiliary verb of the question. Can he swim?’ ‘Yes, he can. ‘ Has It stopped raining?’ ‘No, it hasn’t. ‘ Be and have can be used in short answers. Are you happy?’ ‘Yes, I am.’ Have you a light?’ ‘Yes, I have. ‘ We…


In an informal style, we sometimes use slow as an adverb instead of slowly. Drive slow — I think we ‘re nearly there. Can you go slow for a minute? Slow is used in road signs. SLOW— DANGEROUS BEND

Small Big for Young Old

Small Big for Young Old Don’t Say:I’m two years smaller than you. She’s three years bigger than me. Say:I’m two years younger than you. She’s three years older than me. Note:Great refers to the importance of a person or thing; Napoleon was a great man, Homer’s Iliad is a great book Use great with words…

Say to a person, not say a person

Say to a person, not say a person Don’t Say:Kevin said me, Come tomorrow.’ Say:Kevin said to me, ‘Come tomorrow.’

Parentheses Ellipsis Marks and Dashes

Use the following rules for these three punctuationmarks. Parentheses ( ) are used to • enclose numbers or letters in a series within a sentence There are three different types of learners: (1) visual, (2) auditory, and (3) tactile-kinesthetic. • enclose extra materials Priscilla Smith (n


Progress Don’t Say:Tom has made great progresses. Say:Tom has made great progress.

will / would

Use will: 1. to talk about the future Ex) The bus will leave at 8:30. Ex) Elections are next month. I think the president will be re-elected. 2. to make promises and offers – when in statement form (not in question form): Ex) Sorry I was late to class today. I’ll be on time tomorrow….

have: introduction

We can use have in several different ways. a. auxiliary verb Have you heard about Peter and Corinne? b. to talk about possession, relationships, and other states: I’ve got a new car. Have you got any brothers or sisters? Do you often have headaches? c. to talk about actions: I’m going to have a bath….

Transitive and intransitive verbs

A transitive verb is an action verb that has a direct object. Remember that a direct object (a noun or a pronoun) answers the question Whom? or What? after the action verb. Thus, in the sentence, ‘‘The clown threw the toy into the air,’’ the verb, threw, is transitive because (A) it is an action…

made of / made from

Use made of to talk about the material of an object – wood, plastic, glass, crystal, etc. which has not gone through very much processing. You can still see the original material: – This table is made of wood. – The window is made of glass. – This shirt is made of cotton. Use made…

singular and plural: anybody etc

Anybody, anyone, somebody, someone, nobody, no-one, everybody and everyone are used with singular verbs. Is everybody ready?(NOT Are everybody ready?) However, we often use they, them and their to refer to these words, especially in an informal style. If anybody calls, tell them I’m out, but take their name and address. Nobody phoned, did they?…

Place for Room

Place for Room Don’t Say:Is there place for me on the bus? Say:Is there room for me on the bus? Note:Don’t use place in the sense of room, which means here unoccupied space.

any and no: adverbs

[any/no + comparative any/no different any/no good/use] Any and no can modify ( = change the meaning of) comparatives. You don’t look any older than your daughter. ( = You don’t look at all older . . .) I can’t go any further I’m afraid the weather’s no better than yesterday. We also use any…

discourse markers

Discourse means ‘pieces of language longer than a sentence’. Some words and expressions are used to show how discourse is constructed. They can show the connection between something we have said and something we are going to say; or they can show the connection between what somebody else has said and what we are saying;…

Reason, purpose and result

Reason I went home early because/as/since I was feeling a bit tired. Note: With as or since, the reason (in this example ‘feeling tired’) is often known to the listener or reader, so it is less important. It is also common to put as/since at the beginning of the sentence: ‘As/since I was feeling tired,…

The career ladder

Getting a job When Paul left school he applied for (= wrote an official request for) a job in the accounts department of a local engineering company. They gave him a job as a trainee (= a very junior person in a company). He didn’t earn very much but they gave him a lot of…

Misuse of others as an adjective

Misuse of others as an adjective Don’t Say:The others boys aren’t here. Say:The other boys aren’t here. Note:Others isn’t an adjective but a pronoun. The adjective fs otfrer (without the s) We can say. The others aren’t here omitting thtf noun boys

in / into / inside / within

In and inside are the same in many cases. You can say: We are in the house. The clothes are in the closet. or The clothes are inside the closet. The word inside implies that the thing is physically enclosed – it is in a container (a box, a vehicle, a building with walls, etc.)…

Misuse of adjective for adverb

Misuse of adjective for adverb Don’t Say:The little girl sang beautiful. Say:The little girl sang beautifully. Note:After verb such as look, feel, sound, smell use an adjective instead of an adverb: Sugar tastes sweet (not sweetly). We use an adverb, and not an adjective, to qualify a verb.

Everyday problems

There’s something wrong with… If there is a problem with a machine or a thing that you use e.g. TV, light, washing machine, computer, food mixer, pen, etc., we often use these expressions: There’s something wrong with the TV. (= there is a problem with it) The light’s not working. (= not functioning / there…

the adverb phrase

A prepositional phrase that answers any of these questions—When? Where? How? Why? Under what conditions? or To what degree?—is an adverb phrase. If you can logically move the prepositional phrase within the sentence, it is probably an adverb phrase. Remember that an adverb phrase contains no verb. The adverb phrases in these sentences are underlined….

Omission of the before names of nationalities

Omission of the before names of nationalities Don’t Say:English are fond of sports. Say:The English are fond of sports. Note:Place the definite article before the names of nationalities, describing a people collectively: the British, the French, the Dutch, the Swiss, the Chinese, the Sudanese, etc.

historic / historical

The word historical describes anything related to the past, to history: We need to consider the current conflict from a historical perspective. The city center contains many cultural and historical monuments. I love reading historical fiction. Historical things can be important or unimportant. The word historic describes things that were very important or influential in…

Eating out

Places where you can eat: cafe: you can have a cup of tea/coffee and a snack there (= something small to eat like a sandwich or a cake). They sometimes serve meals there too. restaurant: you go there for a full meal; more expensive than a cafe. bar/pub: bars and pubs serve alcohol and soft…

Expressions with Look

This diagram illustrates some of the most useful phrasal verbs formed with look. The meaning of the phrasal verb is given in brackets. Here are a few more useful phrasal verbs based on look. All of them are illustrated below in a business context but they can also, of course, be used in other situations….

Finish + -ing

Finish + -ing Don’t Say:Have you finished to speak? Say:Have you finished speaking? Note:To + infinitive or the gerund follow verbs meaning to begin She began to speak, or She began speaking.