amoral / immoral

The word immoral means something is against established moral principles: Many religions consider lying and cheating to be immoral. The word amoral means something is completely free from moral considerations -it is neither moral nor immoral. Money itself is amoral – it is simply a tool that can be used for good or for evil.


We usually ask people to do things for us by making yes/no questions. (This is because a yes/no question leaves people free to say ‘No’ if they want to.) Common structures used in polite requests: Could you possibly help me for a few minutes? (very polite) I wonder if you could help me for a…


Work Don’t Say:Today I’ve many works to do. Say:Today I’ve a lot of work to do. Note:The plural form works means a factory or the writings of an author The works of Shakespeare are many, i visited the steel works.

To be busy, not to have work

To be busy, not to have work Don’t Say:I have much work this morning. Say:I’m very busy this morning. Note:We can Say: I have a lot of work to do this morning.

Ages and stages

Growing up Note: For boys, the period between 14-17 approximately (slightly younger for girls) is called adolescence, i.e. you are an adolescent. In law you are an adult at the age of 18, but many people think of you as an adult when you leave school. Childhood and adolescence Sam (on the right) was born…

which, what and who: question words

Determiners We can use which and what before nouns to ask questions about people or things. Which teacher do you like best? Which colour do you want — green, red, yellow or brown? What writers do you like? What colour are your girl-friend’s eyes? We usually prefer which when we are choosing between a small…

Irregular verbs

Most verbs in English are regular but some of the most common verbs in English are irregular. The forms here are the infinitive (go, come), the past simple (went, came) and the past participle (gone, come). All forms the same: Two different forms: Three different forms:

Using a dictionary

What dictionaries do I need? If possible, you should buy two dictionaries: a good bilingual dictionary and a good English-English dictionary. The bilingual dictionary is quicker and easier for you to understand; the English-English dictionary may give you more information about a word or phrase, and it is also a good idea for you to…

Parts of the body

Grammar: Usually we use my, your, his, her, etc. with parts of the body. Jane is washing her hair. I have a pain in my leg. [not Jane is washing the- hair. NOT I have a pain in -the leg.]

neither (of): determiner

We use neither before a singular noun to mean ‘not one and not the other’. [neither + singular noun] ‘Can you come on Monday or Tuesday?’ ‘I’m afraid neither day is possible. ‘ We use neither of before another determiner (for example the, my, these), and before a pronoun. The noun or pronoun is plural….

if: ordinary tenses

[if+ clause, + clause clause + if+ clause] An if-clause can come at the beginning or end of the sentence. If you eat too much you get fat. You get fat if you eat too much. We can use the same tenses with if as with other conjunctions. If you want to learn a musical…

participles used as adjectives

We can often use participles as adjectives. It was a very tiring meeting. There are broken toys ail over the floor. I thought the film was pretty boring. You look terribly frightened. Don’t confuse pairs of words like tiring and tired, interesting and interested, boring and bored, exciting and excited. The present participle ( ….

should, ought and must

Should and ought are very similar. They are both used to talk about obligation and duty, to give advice, and to say what we think it is right for people to do. You ought to/should see ‘Daughter of the Moon’ — it’s a great film. There is sometimes a small difference. We use should or…

Mount or get on a horse, etc not ride a horse, etc

Mount or get on a horse, etc not ride a horse, etc Don’t Say:Peter rode his horse and went home. Say:Peter got on his horse and rode home. Note:To ride denotes a continuous action. To mount or To get on denotes a simple action.

Ask (= put a question to)

Ask (= put a question to) Don’t Say:I asked to the teacher about it. Say:I asked the teacher about it.

Second Capitalization List

Here are names of people, places, and things to capitalize. Organizations (Girl Scouts of America, American Bar Association) Parishes (Vernon Parish, Terrebonne Parish) Parks (Yellowstone National Park, Bryce Canyon National Park) Periodicals (Time, Newsweek) Planets (Saturn, Mercury) Plays (Death of a Salesman, The Master Builder) Poems (‘‘Boy Wandering in Simms’ Valley,’’ ‘‘Richard Cory’’) Product names…

From fov Of or In

From fov Of or In Don’t Say:He’s the tallest from all the boys. Say:He s the tallest of all the boys. Or: He’s the tallest boy in the class.

Just now for Presently, etc

Just now for Presently, etc Don’t Say:The messenger will arrive just now. Say:The messenger will arrive presently. Note:If we are speaking of a near and immediate future time, we must use presently, immediately, in a minute, or soon Just now refers to present or past time, and not to future time: He’s not at home…

Using according to my opinion instead of in my opinion

Using according to my opinion instead of in my opinion Don’t Say:According to my opinion, she’s right. Say:In my opiniori, she’s right. Note:Avoid using the phrase as I think instead of I think Say: He’s lazy and I think he’ll fail, not as i think)

Problems with pronunciation

Phonetics With many languages you can look at a word and know (more or less) how to pronounce it. With English this is not true: it is often very difficult to know the pronunciation from looking at a word. For example: cough (pronounced like ‘off’) enough (like ‘stuff’) through (like ‘too’) and dough (like ‘so’)…

punctuation: quotation marks

Quotation marks (‘ . . . ‘ “… “) can also be called ‘inverted commas’. We can use quotation marks when we say what name something has. . . . can be called ‘inverted commas’. And quotation marks are often used when we mention titles. His next book was ‘Heart of Darkness’. We can use…

Used to + -ing

Used to + -ing Don’t Say: She’s used to get up early. Say: She’s used to getting up early.

Sound a like words Part Four

Here is the last of the sound-alike words. Study, review, and use them when you can. threw: past tense of to throw The hurler threw his best pitch right down the middle of the plate. through: preposition meaning ‘‘in one side and out the other’’ We walked through the many corridors of the large building….

Tremble with cold, etc, not from cold etc

Tremble with cold, etc, not from cold etc Don’t Say:The man was trembling from cold. Say:The man was trembling with cold. Note:Also shake with and shiver with: The thief was shaking with tear.

Show a film, not play a film

Show a film, not play a film Don’t Say:This film will be played shortly. Say:This film will be shown shortly.

Misuse of past for passed

Misuse of past for passed Don’t Say:I past by your house yesterday. Say:I passed by your house yesterday. Note:We can use past as a noun, Don’t think of the past: an adjective. The past week was warm: a preposition, We walked past the church: an adverb, the train went past.

Countries, languages and people

All the nouns and adjectives in this unit always begin with a capital letter, for example Africa [not africa]. Languages and people: Words for languages are usually the same as the ‘people’ adjective: English, French, Japanese, Thai, Spanish, Chinese, Norwegian (from Norway), etc. There is one exception: Arabic.


Look can mean ‘seem’ or ‘appear’. This is a ‘copula verb’ (see 91); it is followed by adjectives. You look angry— what’s the matter? The garden looks nice We can also use like or as if after look. [look like + noun] She looks like her mother ‘What’s that bird?’ ‘It looks like a buzzard…

lose / loose

Lose is a verb; it is the opposite of “win” and also the opposite of “find.” The baseball team is losing 5-2. I lost my favorite hat. I can’t find it anywhere! Loose is an adjective, it is the opposite of “tight.” These pants are too loose – I’ll need to wear a belt. My…