must: forms

Must is a ‘modal auxiliary verb’. There is no -s in the third person singular. He must start corning on hive. (NOT He musts . . .) Questions and negatives are made without do. Must you go? (not Do you must go?) You mustn’t worry. (NOT You don’t must worry.) After must, we use the…

Finger for Toe

Finger for Toe Don’t Say:I hurt a finger of my right foot. Say:I hurt a toe of my right foot. Note:Fingers are on the hand, and toes are on the foot.

wake / awake / sleep / asleep

Sleep and wake are verbs (although we usually use “wake up” for when you stop sleeping, and “go to sleep” for the moment when you begin sleeping): My kids go to sleep at 10 PM. I slept during the 6-hour flight. I wake up at 7 AM and I have to be at work by…

pass the time / spend time

Use spend time to talk about the time you do an activity: I pass spend a lot of time reading. We passed spent an hour discussing the best way to finish the project. The expression pass the time is different – it means doing something to make the time pass faster while you are waiting…

reported speech and direct speech

1. There are two ways of telling a person what somebody else said. a. direct speech – SUE: What did Bill say? – PETER: He said ‘I want to go home ‘. b. reported speech – SUE: What did Bill say? – PETER: He said that he wanted to go home. When we use ‘direct…

Worth + -ing

Worth + -ing Don’t Say:Is today’s film worth to see? Say:Is today’s film worth seeing?

Misuse of miser as an adjective

Misuse of miser as an adjective Don’t Say:Jill loved money; she was miser. Say:Jill loved money; she was a miser. Note:Miser is a noun, and we can’t use it as adjective the adjective is miserly.She was miserly.

be with auxiliary do

[do + be + adjective/noun don’t + be + adjective/noun] Don’t be … is used to give people advice or orders. Don’t be afraid. Don’t be a fool! In affirmative sentences, we usually just use Be . . . Be careful! But Do be . . . is used for emphasis. Do be careful, please!!!…

past time: present perfect progressive

Forms Affirmative Question Negative I have been working you have been working, etc have I been working? have you been working?etc I have not been working, etc Meaning We use the present perfect progressive to talk about actions, states and situations which started in the past and still continue, or which have just stopped. Have…

help

We can use[ object + infinitive ] after help. Can you help me to find my ring? In an informal style, we often use the infinitive without to. Can you help me find my ring? Help me get him to bed. We can also use [help + infinitive] without an object. Would you like to…

Very and Too – Too

Very and Too – Too Don’t Say:It’s now very hot to play football. Say:It’s now too hot to play football. Note:Very simply makes the adjective or adverb stronger. Too means more than enough, or so much that something else happens as a result.

take (time)

We can use take to say how much time we need to do something. Three constructions are possible. [person + take + time + infinitive] I took three hours to get home last night. She takes all day to wake up. [activity + take(+ person) + time] The journey took me three hours. Gardening takes…

capital / capitol

The word capital, in politics/geography, refers to the town or city that is the official center of a country’s government: Washington D.C. is the capital of the U.S. The word capitol is very specific – it refers to a building or complex of buildings where the government meets to make laws. t The capitol building…

go … -ing

We often use the structure go -ing, especially to talk about sports and free-time activities. Let’s go climbing next weekend. Did you go dancing last Saturday? Common expressions: go climbing go hunting go shooting go swimming go dancing go riding go shopping go walking go fishing go sailing go skiing

The subject misplaced in indirect questions

The subject misplaced in indirect questions Don’t Say:The teacher asked me what games did I play? Say:The teacher asked me what games I played. Note:In indirect questions follow the usual order of word?: subject first and then verb.

early / soon

The word soon means a short time after now, a short time in the future. If right now it is April, and Harry will graduate from college in May, then he’ll be graduating from college soon. If it’s 5:30 and I will be home at 6:00, then I will get home from work soon. The…

Give or deliver a lecture, not make a lecture

Give or deliver a lecture, not make a lecture Don’t Say:He made an interesting lecture. Say:He gave an interesting lecture. Or: He delivered an interesting lecture. Note:We Say: He made an interesting speech.

Wrong use of the with names of days and months

Wrong use of the with names of days and months Don’t Say:The Sunday can be a day of prayer. The December is the last month. Say:Sunday can be a day of prayer. December is the last month. Note:We say the Sunday before last, the December of 1940, etc. Don’t use The definite article before the…

Using from instead of one of or among

Using from instead of one of or among Don’t Say:She is from the nicest girls I know. Say:She is one of the nicest girls I know. Note:Avoid using from in the sense of one of or among.

definitely / definitively

Definite (adjective) or definitely (adverb) means certain, without a single doubt: We have definite plans to move to New York. (it is 100% certain that we will move there) I’m definitely going to the party. (it is 100% certain that I am going) This $50 jacket is definitely overpriced. I saw the exact same jacket…

sale / sell

Sell is a verb and sale is a noun: – I’m going to sell my car and buy a new one. – She’s selling bottles of water at the football game. – Yesterday I sold all of my old college textbooks on the internet. – The bookstore is having a Christmas sale – everything is…

In the office and in the factory

The office Office work Brenda works for a company which produces furniture. She works in an office, which is just opposite the factory where the furniture is made. This is how she spends her day: She works at a computer most of the time, where she writes letters and reports. She answers phone calls, mostly…

For and At (Price) – For

For and At (Price) – For Don’t Say:I bought a book at fifty pence. Say:I bought a book for fifty pence.

last and the last

Last week, last month etc is the week or month just before this one. If I am speaking in July, last month was June; if I am speaking in 1985, last yearwas 1984. (Note that prepositions are not used before these time-expressions.) I had a cold last week Were you at the meeting last Tuesday?…

disability / handicap / impairment

The noun impairment means that some ability is not as strong as normal. People can be: hearing impaired visually impaired mentally impaired An impairment can also be temporary – your judgment and coordination become impaired when you drink too much alcohol, for example. Both disability and handicap refer to a problem that prevents someone from…

The possessive case

The possessive case of a noun or pronoun indicates ownership or possession. Pronouns such as his, her, its, my, mine, your, yours, their, theirs, our, and ours are all possessive case words. Here are several rules for the possessive case. A. Most singular nouns form their possessive by adding an apostrophe and an s. (the…

Omission of the demonstrative pronoun one

Omission of the demonstrative pronoun one Don’t Say:This is the only that I like. Say:This is the only one that I like. Note:Use the demonstrative pronoun one (plural oneal in place of a noun menlroned before.

articles: countable and uncountable nouns

A singular countable noun normally has an article or other determiner with it. We can say a cat, the cat, my cat, this cat, any cat, either cat or every cat, but not just cat. (There are one or two exceptions Plural and uncountable nouns can be used without an article or determiner, or with…