would rather

Would rather means ‘would prefer to’. It is followed by the infinitive without to. We often use the contraction’d rather: this means ‘would rather’, not ‘had rather’. [ would rather + infinitive without to] Would you rather stay here or go home? ‘How about a drink?’ I’d rather have something to eat.’ We can use…

short answers

When we answer yes/no questions, we often repeat the subject and auxiliary verb of the question. Can he swim?’ ‘Yes, he can. ‘ Has It stopped raining?’ ‘No, it hasn’t. ‘ Be and have can be used in short answers. Are you happy?’ ‘Yes, I am.’ Have you a light?’ ‘Yes, I have. ‘ We…

participle clauses

We can use a participle rather like a conjunction, to introduce a ‘participle clause’. Who’s the fat man sitting in the comer? Do you know the number of people employed by the government? Jumping into a small red sports car, she drove off. Participle clauses can have different uses. Some of them are ‘adjectival’: they…

marry and divorce

Marry and divorce are used without a preposition. She married a builder. (NOT She married with a builder.) Will you marry me? Andrew’s going to divorce Carola. When there is no direct object, we usually prefer the expressions get married and get divorced, especially in an informal style. Lulu and Joe got married last week….

future: shall/will (predictions)

Forms [ I shall/will you will he/she/it will we shall/will they will] – + infinitive without to questions: shall/will I; will you, will he/she/it, etc. negatives: I will/shall not you will not, etc. contractions: I’ll, you’ll, he’lletc; shan’t, won’t. In modern English, I shall and I will, we shall and we will are used with…

future: introduction

There are several ways to talk about the future in English. Present tenses When we talk about future events which are already decided now, or which we can see now ‘are on the way’, we often use present tenses. There are two possibilities: the present progressive , I am… -ing and a structure with the…

countable and uncountable nouns

Countable nouns are the names of separate objects, people, ideas etc which we can count. We can use numbers and a/an with countable nouns; they have plurals. a cat three cats a newspaper two newspapers Uncountable nouns are the names of materials, liquids, and other things which we do not see as separate objects. We…

as and like

Similarity We can use like or as to say that things are similar. a. Like is a preposition. We use like before a noun or pronoun. [like + noun/pronoun] You look like your sister. (NOT … as your sister.) He ran like the wind. It’s like a dream. She’s dressed just like me. We use…