do and make

These words are very similar, but there are some differences. We use do when we do not say exactly what activity we are talking about — for example with something, nothing, anything, everything, what. Do something! I like doing nothing. What shall we do? Then he did a very strange thing. We use do when…

country

Country (countable) = ‘nation’, ‘land’. Scotland is a cold country. France is the country I know best. How many countries are there in Europe? The country (uncountable) = ‘open land without many buildings’ (the opposite of the town). With this meaning, we cannot say a country or countries. My parents live in the country near…

countable and uncountable nouns

Countable nouns are the names of separate objects, people, ideas etc which we can count. We can use numbers and a/an with countable nouns; they have plurals. a cat three cats a newspaper two newspapers Uncountable nouns are the names of materials, liquids, and other things which we do not see as separate objects. We…

before (conjunction)

[clause + before + clause before + clause, + clause] We can use before to join two clauses. We can either say: A happened before B happened OR Before B happened, A happened. The meaning is the same: A happened first. Note the comma (,) in the second structure. I bought a lot of new…

at, in and on (place)

At is used to talk about position at a point. It’s very hot at the centre of the earth. Turn right at the next traffic-lights. Sometimes we use at with a larger place, if we just think of it as a point: a point on a journey, a meeting place, or the place where something…

as much/many … as …

We use as much … as .. . with a singular (uncountable) noun, and as many … as .. . with a plural. Compare: We need as much time as possible. We need as many cars as possible. As much/many can be used without a following noun. I ate as much as I wanted. Rest…

as and like

Similarity We can use like or as to say that things are similar. a. Like is a preposition. We use like before a noun or pronoun. [like + noun/pronoun] You look like your sister. (NOT … as your sister.) He ran like the wind. It’s like a dream. She’s dressed just like me. We use…

articles: a and an; pronunciation of the

We do not usually pronounce /a/ before a vowel (a, e, /’, o, u). So before a vowel, the article a {lal) changes to an, and the changes its pronunciation from Compare: a rabbit , an elephant , the sea , the air We use an and the before a vowel sound— a pronounced vowel…