as…as …

{[as + adjective + as as + adverb + as] + noun/pronoun/clause} We use as … as … to say that two things are the same in some way. She’s as tall as her brother. Can a man run as fast as a horse? It’s not as good as I expected. We can use object…

articles: special rules and exceptions

Common expressions without articles Articles are not used in these expressions: to school at school from school to/at/from university/college to/at/in/into/from church to/in/into/out of bed/prison/hospital to/at/from work to/at sea to/in/from town at/from home for/at/to breakfast/lunch/dinner/supper at night by car/bus/bicycle/plane/train/tube/ boat on foot go to sleep watch television (TV) on TV Possessives A noun that is used…

articles: a and an; pronunciation of the

We do not usually pronounce /a/ before a vowel (a, e, /’, o, u). So before a vowel, the article a {lal) changes to an, and the changes its pronunciation from Compare: a rabbit , an elephant , the sea , the air We use an and the before a vowel sound— a pronounced vowel…

articles: the difference between a/an and the

Very simply: a/an just means ‘one of a class’ the means ‘you know exactly which one’. Compare: A doctor must like people. ( = any doctor, any one of that profession) My brother’s a doctor. ( = one of that profession) I’m going to see the doctor. ( = you know which one: my doctor)…

after (preposition); afterwards (adverb)

After is a preposition: it can be followed by a noun or an -ing form. We ate in a restaurant after the film. After seeing the film, we ate in a restaurant After is not an adverb: we do not use it with the same meaning as afterwards, then or after that. We went to…

adjectives: position

{adjective + noun subject + copula verb (be. seem, look etc) + adjective} Most adjectives can go in two places in a sentence: a. before a noun The new secretary doesn’t like me. She married a rich businessman b. after a ‘copula verb’ (be, seem, look, appear, feel and some other verbsThat dress is new,isn’t…

adjectives: order

Before a noun, we put adjectives in a fixed order. The exact rules are very complicated (and not very well understood). Here are the most important rules: Adjectives of colour, origin (where something comes from), material (what it is made of) and purpose (what it is for) go in that order. colour origin material purpose…

actual(ly)

Actual means ‘real’; actually means ‘really’ or ‘in fact’. We often use them to correct mistakes and misunderstandings, or when we say something unexpected or surprising. The book says he was 47 when he died, but his actual age was 43. ‘Hello, John. Nice to see you again.’ Actually, my name’s Andy.’ ‘Do you like…