Prepositions – Like

1. Like can mean similar to. Pattern: be, look, seem + like + noun She is like her sister.They don’t look like their mother. 2. Like can indicate similar behavior. Pattern: verb + like + nounHe talks like his father.She swims like a duck. Common verbs before like: act, behave, play, sing, talk, walk 3….

Prepositions – Into

1. Into indicates entrance. Pattern 1: verb + into + nounWe went into his office.I drive into the city every day. Typical verbs before into:blow, break, come, drive, fall, fly, gaze, get, go, look, move, walk, run, sail, stare, stomp, storm Pattern 2: verb + noun + into + nounShe poured the juice into the…

Prepositions – Inside

1. Inside means within something else. Pattern: verb + noun + inside + nounThere are some little toy animals inside the box. She put the money inside the envelope. 2. Inside (adverb) means indoors, within a building. It started to rain, so we went inside.

Prepositions – In Front Of

1. In front of means located before or facing something. Pattern 1: noun + in front of + nounThere is a van in front of their house. Pattern 2: verb + in front of + nounThe teacher usually stands in front of the class. He was in front of me in line. 2. In front…

Prepositions – In Back Of

1. In back of means located behind. Pattern 1: noun + in back of + nounThere is a beautiful tree in back of our house. Pattern 2: verb + in back of + nounYour sister sits in back of me in class.

Prepositions – Except

1. Except means excluding.Everyone went to the movies except me. We work every day except Sunday.

Prepositions – Despite/In Spite Of

1. Despite indicates an illogical occurrence.We had a good time despite the bad weather. 2. In spite of has the same meaning and usage as despite. We had a good time in spite of the bad weather.

Prepositions – Close To

1. Close to means near.Your house is close to the metro station. They are sitting close to each other. 2. Close to indicates a very friendly or intimate relationship.She is very close to her older sister. 3. Close to (adverb) can mean almost.I wrote close to fifty invitations this morning.

Prepositions – Beyond

1. Beyond means on the other side of.Our street is beyond the traffic light.If you are traveling west, New Mexico is beyond Texas. 2. Beyond means past the limits of. Pattern 1: be + beyond + noun The sick child was beyond help.That situation is beyond my understanding. Expression:beyond one—not understandable by someone This puzzle…

Prepositions – Besides

1. Besides means excepting.Everyone besides me is at the beach. 2. Besides means in addition to.Besides all of my friends, all of their brothers and sisters are there, too.

Prepositions – Beside

1. Beside means next to. Pattern: verb + beside + nounPlease come over here and sit beside me. Verbs commonly used with this pattern:be, kneel, lie (down), rest, sit (down), sleep, stand, walk, work 2. Expressions beside the point—irrelevantHe always wastes time at our meetings by talking about things that are beside the point. beside…

Prepositions – Beneath

1. Beneath means under and concealed by.My glasses were beneath the newspaper.The daffodils sprouted beneath the snow. 2. Beneath can mean less worthy than.Now that she is rich and famous, she thinks her family is beneath her. 3. Beneath can mean unlikely, because of goodness or pride. Pattern 1: it + be + beneath +…

Prepositions – Below

1. Below means lower in number or degree than.Your body temperature is ninety-seven degrees; it is below normal, which is ninety-eight point six. 2. Below can mean lower in rank or level than.In our company the supervisors are below the directors.Our offices are on the fourth floor; theirs are below ours, on the third floor….

Prepositions – Behind

1. Behind means in the rear of.The trash can is behind the chair.My friend sits behind me in class. 2. Behind can mean less advanced than.Miss Thompson’s class is studying lesson three; the other classes are studying Lesson four. Miss Thompson’s class is behind the other classes. 3. Behind can mean left in the past.He…

Prepositions – Before

1. Before means earlier than.We must leave before four o’clock. 2. Before can mean in a more important position than.She is so ambitious that she puts her job before her family. 3. Before can mean facing.The handsome singer had many adoring fans before him. 4. Before can mean in the future.The bride smiled as she…

Prepositions – Back to/Back From

1. Back to indicates return. Pattern 1: verb + back to + noun of place or timePlease go back to the beginning of your story.The children went back to the museum to see the new exhibit. Verbs often used before back to:crawl, drive, fly, go, hark, jump, look, move, race, run, think, walk Pattern 2:…

Prepositions – At

1. At can indicate location Pattern 1: at + the + place within a city or townThe women are at the supermarket. Nouns commonly used with this pattern:apartment, bus stop, factory, hospital, hotel, house, mall, office, park, parking lot, restaurant, station, store, theater, university Pattern 2: at + an addressShe lives at 3757North 52nd Street,…

Prepositions – As

1. As means in the role of. Pattern 1: verb + as + nounShe is a trained teacher, but she works as a secretary in our office. Typical verbs used before as:act, serve, substitute, volunteer, work Pattern 2: verb + noun + as + nounWe have selected you as the captain of the team. Typical…

Prepositions – Around

1. Around means following a boundary, in a circular direction. Pattern: motion verb + around + nounWe walked around the block. Verbs commonly used before around: drive, fly, race, ride, run, skip, travel, walk Nouns commonly used after around: block, building, house, room, track, world 2. Around (adverb) indicates movement in a circular direction in…

Prepositions – Among

1. Among can mean surrounded by. Pattern: verb + among + plural (three or more) nounThey camped in the woods among the trees. 2. Among can mean with each other. Pattern: verb + among + plural (three or more) nounThe children quarreled among themselves. Typical verbs before among:argue, celebrate, debate, discuss something, fight, play, share…

Prepositions – Along

1. Along means following the boundary of something. Pattern: verb + along + nounWe walked along the water’s edge at the beach last night. Typical verbs before along: jog, stroll, run, walk 2. Along with means together. Pattern: verb + along with + nounHe used to sing along with me. Typical verbs used before along…

Prepositions – Against

Against means touching something or somebody for support. Pattern 1: verb + against + nounThe man was leaning against his car. Typical verbs used before against: hang, lean, lie, rest, sleep Pattern 2: verb + noun + against + nounThey held the mirror against the wall. Typical verbs used before against:butt, hold, keep, lay, lean,…

Using Capital Letters

Here are some useful capitalization rules to follow. Capitalize the first word of every sentence. Your poem was read at this morning’s assembly. Begin the session now. Capitalize the pronoun I as a word and in a contraction. This card is something that I cherish. I’ve a funny story to tell you. Capitalize proper nouns…

Active and passive voices

Voice is a verb form that indicates if the sentence’s subject performs or receives an action. There are two types of voice—active voice and passive voice. ➲ If the sentence’s subject performs the action, the sentence is written in the active voice. ‘‘The pilot landed the plane’’ is written in the active voice since the…

regard / regards / regardless

Regard (v.) is to consider or to have an opinion about something: Picasso is regarded as one of the greatest artists in history. I don’t regard this as a problem; I regard it as an opportunity. Regards (n.) is a greeting: Please give my regards to your parents when you see them. Some people end…

poor / pore / pour

The verb pour means to make liquid flow out from a container by inclining the container. When you put milk or juice from the carton into a glass, you are pouring it. When it’s raining very hard, you can also say “It’s pouring.” Po or (adjective) is the opposite of rich. If a person is…

famous / infamous

The word famous means a lot of people know about a person or thing: She’s a famous singer who has sold millions of albums. This restaurant is famous for its steak. People come from miles away to eat it. The word infamous means someone or something is well-known because they are connected to bad behavior…

arrive / come / get / reach

Come is a general word used for entering a current place. It can be used for coming from short distances or long distances. My sister lives in London, but next week she’s coming to visit me in Atlanta. Our neighbors are coming over for dinner tonight. Come here – I want to show you something….

all of / each of

We use each to talk about objects individually, and all to talk about objects as a group: The teacher gave a different task to each student. (“each” emphasizes the individuality of the members of the group) The teacher gave tests to all the students. (“all” emphasizes the students as a group) In a similar way,…