Money – buying, selling and paying

Personal finance Sometimes in a shop they ask you: ‘How do you want to pay?’ You can answer: ‘Cash / By cheque / By credit card.’ In a bank you usually have a current account, which is one where you pay in your salary and then withdraw money to pay your everyday bills. The bank…

Ages and stages

Growing up Note: For boys, the period between 14-17 approximately (slightly younger for girls) is called adolescence, i.e. you are an adolescent. In law you are an adult at the age of 18, but many people think of you as an adult when you leave school. Childhood and adolescence Sam (on the right) was born…

Everyday problems

Things that go wrong in houses and flats Everyday minor injuries Other everyday problems – I’ve mislaid Bob’s letter. Have you seen it anywhere? [put it somewhere and can’t find it] – She spilt some coffee on the carpet. I hope it doesn’t stain, [leave a permanent mark] – I overslept this morning and was…

What animals do

Cats mew when they’re hungry, purr when they’re happy and caterwaul when they’re on the roof at midnight. Dogs bark. They also growl when they’re angry. Lions roar. Sheep and goats bleat, horses neigh and pigs grunt. Cows moo. Frogs croak and ducks quack. Cocks crow, hens cluck and owls hoot. N.B. All these verbs…

Expressions With get

Get seems to be used all the time in spoken English. It has the following basic meanings: • receive, obtain or buy something, e.g. Please get me a newspaper when you’re in town; I got a letter from John today; She got top marks in her exam. • show a change in position – move…

Jobs

The medical profession These people treat (= give medical treatment and try to solve a medical problem) and look after (= care for / take care of) others: doctor, nurse, surgeon (= a specialist doctor who works in a hospital and operates on people), dentist, and vet (= animal doctor). The word ‘vet’ is a…

The career ladder

Getting a job When Paul left school he applied for (= wrote an official request for) a job in the accounts department of a local engineering company. They gave him a job as a trainee (= a very junior person in a company). He didn’t earn very much but they gave him a lot of…

Phrasal verbs: form and meaning

Formation A phrasal verb is a verb combined with an adverb or preposition, and occasionally with an adverb and preposition. The price of petrol may go up (= increase) again next week. He fell over (= fell to the ground) when he was running for the bus. She’s promised to find out (= learn/discover) the…

Uncountable nouns and plural nouns

Uncountable nouns Uncountable nouns (e.g. information): – don’t have a plural form (information*); – are used with a singular verb (the information ate); – cannot be used with the indefinite article ‘a/an’. (I want a«-information) These uncountable nouns are often countable in other languages. Look at them carefully. He refused to give me more information…

Classroom language

Equipment These are some of the things you may use in your classroom or school. Note: We can use some of these nouns as verbs with little or no change: to video (= to record a programme on video), to photocopy (= to use the photocopier), to highlight and to file (= to put things…

Sound and light

General words to describe sound – I could hear the sound of voices/music coming from the next room, [neutral] – Our neighbours had a party last night. The noise went on till 3 a.m. [loud, unpleasant sounds] – I tried hard to hear what she was saying above the din of the traffic, [very loud,…

Countable and uncountable with different meanings

When we use a noun countably we are thinking of specific things; when we use it uncountably we are thinking of stuff or material or the idea of a thing in general. Here are some more nouns used in both ways. Make sure you know the difference between the uncountable and the countable meaning. drink…

Reason, purpose and result

Reason I went home early because/as/since I was feeling a bit tired. Note: With as or since, the reason (in this example ‘feeling tired’) is often known to the listener or reader, so it is less important. It is also common to put as/since at the beginning of the sentence: ‘As/since I was feeling tired,…

Describing character

Opposites Many positive words describing character have clear opposites with a negative meaning. Jane is very tense at the moment because of her exams, but she’s usually quite relaxed and easy-going about most things. I think the weather influences me a lot: when it’s sunny I feel more cheerful and optimistic; but when it’s cold…

Business and finance

Banks and businesses Most businesses need to borrow money to finance (= pay for) investments (= things they need to buy in order to help the company, e.g. machines). The money they borrow from the bank is called a loan, and on this loan they have to pay interest, e.g. if you borrow £1,000 and…

In the office and in the factory

The office Office work Brenda works for a company which produces furniture. She works in an office, which is just opposite the factory where the furniture is made. This is how she spends her day: She works at a computer most of the time, where she writes letters and reports. She answers phone calls, mostly…

Work duties conditions and pay

What do you do? People may ask you about your job. They can ask and you can answer in different ways: What do you do? I’m (+ job) e.g. a banker / an engineer / a teacher / a builder What’s your job? I work in (+ place or general area) e.g. a bank /…

Transport

Vehicles Vehicle is the genera! word for all types of road transport. A: How did you get here? B: I came by bus. A: And the others? B: Sue and John came by car. A: And Paul? B: He missed the bus, so he had to take a taxi. Catch a bus,take a taxi Railway…

On the road

Road features An accident Read the text and use the context and the diagram to help you with the key words. There was a serious accident on one of the main roads into Stuttgart this morning. An old lorry (AmEng = truck) broke down in the middle of the road, and the driver couldn’t move…

Town and country

Towns Here are some of the things you will find in most big towns. a commercial centre: an area with lots of banks and company offices shopping centres: places with many shops, either indoors or outdoors car parks: places to leave many cars factories: buildings where you make/manufacture things, e.g. cars suburbs: areas outside the…

Cooking and restaurants

Ways of cooking food boil: in water, e.g. carrots fry: in oil or butter above the heat, e.g. sausages grill: under the heat, e.g. toast or meat roast: in the oven using oil, e.g. meat bake: in the oven without oil, e.g. cakes Note: Food which is not cooked is raw. Cooking steak If you…

Food

Fruit Vegetables Salad A salad is a mixture of uncooked vegetables. The main ingredient in a salad is lettuce, but it may also contain tomato, cucumber, and other things. Animals (meat), fish and shellfish

Shops and Shopping

Shops and shopping shop assistant: person who works in a shop; also called sales assistant shop window: the window at the front of the shop shopping centre: a place with many shops, outside or indoors window shopping: to look round the shops but not buy anything shopping list: a list of things to buy I…

Clothes

Pocket, buttons, collar, sleeves Note: Some of these words are plural nouns, e.g. jeans and trousers. Important verbs Use this text to guess the meaning of the key words. I got up at 7.30, had a shower, got dressed, and had breakfast. It was a cold morning so I put on my overcoat and left…

Health: injuries

Common injuries An injury is damage to part of your body, usually caused by an accident in the home, on the roads, or during a game, e.g. of football. Here are some common injuries: Hospital treatment Look carefully at the key words in these texts. John fell off a chair, hit his head on the…

Health: illness and disease

Common problems Note: For these illnesses, you can either buy something from the chemist, or go to your doctor, who may give you a prescription (= a piece of paper with an order for some medicine) that you get from the chemist. Aches and pains Nouns: We only use ache with the following: I’ve got…

Money

Notes and coins Here are some examples of British money. The currency (= the type of money used in a country) is called sterling. Common verbs Notice how these common verbs are used. Adjectives Important words and phrases I can’t afford (= don’t have enough money) to go on holiday this year. How much is…

Everyday problems

There’s something wrong with… If there is a problem with a machine or a thing that you use e.g. TV, light, washing machine, computer, food mixer, pen, etc., we often use these expressions: There’s something wrong with the TV. (= there is a problem with it) The light’s not working. (= not functioning / there…

Around the home 2

The bedroom I put on my pyjamas, got into bed, set the alarm clock, switched off the light, and went to sleep. The bathroom I didn’t have time for a bath, but I had a wash, cleaned my teeth, and then I went to school. Housework (U) My room is very clean and tidy (=…

Around the home I

Rooms The living room or lounge (= where you sit, relax, talk and watch TV); the dining room- the kitchen; the bedroom(s); and the bathroom(s). ’ Some people also have a study (= room with a desk where you work), a utility room (= a room usually next to the kitchen, where you have a…