the appositive

An appositive is a noun or pronoun (often with modifiers) that is placed beside another noun or pronoun to explain or identify it. Essentially, an appositive is an additional word or group of words used to tell more about who (or what) that noun or pronoun is. No verb appears in an appositive phrase. In…

regular verb tenses

Most regular verbs form their past tense by adding -ed to the present-tense form of the verb. Examples of this include walked, talked, and recalled. If a regular verb ends in ‘‘e,’’ as in bathe or wave, simply add ‘‘d’’ to form the past tense. In addition to the present (expresses action that is occurring…

the adjective

The adjective, the third of the eight parts of speech, modifies (qualifies or limits the meaning of) a noun or pronoun. An adjective can answer any one of these questions: What kind? Which one? How many? or How much? In addition to regular adjectives such as tall, muscular, beautiful, and intell-igent, there are two specific…

Indefinite pronouns and the possessive case

Indefinite pronouns form the possessive by adding an apostrophe and an ‘‘s’’ after the word. Is this someone’s backpack? May I ask everyone’s help here? Somebody’s cell phone is ringing; please answer it in the other room. We would like to hear another’s opinion. The other’s situation is much different. If you use the word…

types of sentences by purpose

Sentences have different purposes. Some make statements. Some ask questions. Others give commands, and still others express strong feelings. Here are the four types of sentences by purpose: &#10162 A declarative sentence makes a statement or expresses an opinion. Use a period at the end of a declarative sentence. Andy Murray has a great will…

personal pronouns

A personal pronoun refers to people, places, things, and ideas. ➲ A first-person personal pronoun refers to the one (or ones) speaking. The singular first-person pronouns are I, me, my, and mine. The plural first-person personal pronouns are we, our, ours, and us. We told our story. I offered my opinion to the reporters. Ours…

the adverb clause

An adverb clause functions as an adverb. This clause answers any of these questions—How?When?Where?Why? Howmuch? Howoften? It has a subject and a verb, but it cannot stand alone as a complete thought. It needs to be joined with an independent or main clause to make sense. An adverb clause starts with any of the following…

Active and passive voices

Voice is a verb form that indicates if the sentence’s subject performs or receives an action. There are two types of voice—active voice and passive voice. ➲ If the sentence’s subject performs the action, the sentence is written in the active voice. ‘‘The pilot landed the plane’’ is written in the active voice since the…