the noun clause

object of the preposition, or a predicate nominative. This type of clause often starts with any one of these words—how, that, what, whatever, when, where, whether, which, whichever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, and why. The noun clause is underlined in each of these sentences. Its function within the sentence follows in the parentheses. What…

complex sentences

A complex sentence has one main (or independent) clause and one (or more) subordinate (or dependent) clauses. In each sentence, the main clause is underlined, and the subordinate clause is in italics. After the storm subsided, we went out to inspect the grounds. The ticket that you received in the mail is the right one….

types of sentences by purpose

Sentences have different purposes. Some make statements. Some ask questions. Others give commands, and still others express strong feelings. Here are the four types of sentences by purpose: &#10162 A declarative sentence makes a statement or expresses an opinion. Use a period at the end of a declarative sentence. Andy Murray has a great will…

The Semicolon

Use a semicolon to join two independent clauses. In this case, a conjunction is unnecessary. The two independent clauses should be closely related. Isaac is a champion discus thrower; he holds the state record. (This is an acceptable use of the semicolon.) Isaac is a champion discus thrower; his dad is a baker. (This is…

subject complements predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives

A subject complement is a word or group of words within the complete predicate that either identifies (with a predicate nominative) or describes (with a predicate adjective) the subject (doer of the action). There are two types of subject complements—the predicate adjective (the describer) and the predicate nominative (the identifier). As an example, in the…

Confusing usage words part two

anywhere: in, at, or to any place I think that we can drive anywhere in this county. anywheres: This word does not exist in the English language. as: (conjunction that starts a subordinate clause); (adverb) to the same degree, equally. (As is also a preposition.) Rex is already as tall as his dad. like: (preposition)…

the direct object

A direct object is a noun or pronoun that receives the action of a transitive verb (a verb that has an object) or shows the result of that action. A direct object answers the question ‘‘What?’’ or ‘‘Whom?’’ after the transitive verb. In these sentences, the transitive verb is underlined, and the direct object is…

Talking About The Past

Past simple : finished actions, past states, past habits and routines, actions following one another Past perfect : an event that happened before another past event, an event that happened before a certain point in past used to + inf : past habits not repeated anymore, past states not existing any longer Past continuous :…

sentences fragments and run on sentences

A sentence can be a word (Stop!) or a group of words that must contain a subject (doer), a verb (action), and a complete thought. ➲ In the sentence, ‘‘Lorina washed her face,’’ the subject is Lorina, the verb is washed, and the group of words makes a complete thought. A fragment is a group…

the interjection

The interjection, the eighth part of speech, expresses strong emotions or feelings. Often found at the beginning of a sentence, an interjection is usually followed by either an exclamation mark (for strong emotions) or a comma (for mild emotions). An interjection can also be used to protest or command. Though interjections can stand alone, they…

Present Perfect Simple Tense

Present Perfect Simple Tense have + past participle things you have done in your life – Have you ever been to Mexico? – I’ve tried sushi before. Have you? – He’s lived in many different countries. number of times you have done something – I’ve been to Paris three times. – How many times have…

working on + (noun)

I’m working on + (noun) I’m is a contraction for the words I am. The phrase ‘working on’ relays a physical or mental effort towards an accomplishment. Here are some examples: I’m working on a big project. I’m working on training my dog. I’m working on making new friends. I’m working on educating myself. I’m…

The verb be

Forms of the verb to be are used very frequently in the English language. It is very useful to know all of the verb’s forms. Here is a list to help you along with the verb’s tenses. Present tense: The action either exists or is happening now. Singular Plural First person I am happy. We…

Confusing usage words part four

good (adjective) effective; efficient; (adverb) well completely fully Evelyn has been a good physicians assistant for many years now(adjective) This is about as good as it gets for this group. (adverb) well (adverb) in a pleasing or desirable manner fittingly to a larg extent I felt well after the challenging mountain climb. Pierre fit in…

introducing clauses

A clause is a group of words that has both a subject and a verb. Any simple sentence is a clause. Unlike phrases, clauses include both a subject and a verb. The specific types of clauses are the following: ➲ A main or independent clause is a group of words that can stand alone. ‘‘Jeremiah…

The Colon

Use a colon (:) to introduce a list or series of items. You should have the following books and supplies with you on the first day of class: Roget’s Thesaurus, two pencils, a dictionary, and two notebooks. These are the eight parts of speech: noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. Note: A…

the adjective phrase

An adjective phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun. This phrase answers the question Which one? The adjective phrase follows right after the noun or pronoun that it modifies or describes. Generally, if you cannot logically move the prepositional phrase within the sentence, it is most often an adjective phrase….

Regular Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs

To show how they differ in degree or extent, most adjectives and adverbs have three degrees (or forms)—the positive, the comparative, and the superlative. One-syllable words form these degrees in a regular way. ➲ The positive degree (or form) is used when an adjective or adverb modifier is not being compared. The young sister walked…

complete and simple subjects

➲ The complete subject (the noun or pronoun that performs the action) contains all the words that help to identify the main person, place, thing, or idea in the sentence. The complete subject in each sentence is italicized. Many teachers and two principals from our school attended the musical concert. Giraffes and monkeys in the…

agreement between indefinite pronouns and their antecedents

Singular indefinite pronouns agree in number with their antecedents. These pronouns are anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, and something. ➲Everyone in the church is singing his or her best. (His and her are singular pronouns, and everyone is the singular antecedent.) Note: Use his…

Confusing usage words part six

learn: verb to acquire knowledge How did you learn to swim so gracefully? teach: (verb) to instruct Will you please teach me the eight parts of speech for this test? personal: (adjective) individual or private; intended for use by a single person This is a personal problem that I would not want to share with…

Irregular Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs

Adjectives and adverbs of two or more syllables form their comparative and superlative degrees (or forms) in an irregular way. The rules below will help you understand and utilize these forms. ➲Use -er, more, or less to form the comparative degree of many two-syllable modifiers or describers. ➲ Adverbs that end in -ly always use…

complete and simple predicates

➲ A complete predicate is the main verb (action) along with all of its modifiers. The complete predicate is italicized in these sentences. Each of the seven contestants will be flying to Los Angeles next week. The talented mechanic fixed our car yesterday afternoon. My sister, a hairdresser, studied hard for her state licensing examinations….

Prepositions – About

About identifies a topic. Pattern 1: noun + be + about + nounThis book is about prepositions.Nouns commonly used before about:argument, article, book, conversation, disagreement, discussion, joke, lecture, movie, news, play, program, report, speech, story Pattern 2: noun + about + nounShe gave me advice about my loan.Nouns commonly used before about:assurance, complaint, comment, gossip,…

Confusing usage words part seven

right: (noun) claim or title; (adjective) proper; just; correct; (adverb) directly; (verb) to put in proper order Freedom of speech is one of our rights. (noun) Is this the right way to tie this knot? (adjective) Come right home after school. (adverb) Let’s right the wrongs we committed. (verb) rite: (noun) a ceremony The religious…

irregular verbs part two

Infinitive Present Participle Past Past Participle to + verb the -ing form (Yesterday I . . . I had . . . She has . . . You have . . . lie to rest, to recline lying lay lain lose losing lost lost make making made made ride riding rode ridden ring ringing rang…

Periods Question Marks and Exclamation Marks

Use a period at the end of a declarative sentence, a sentence that is a request, and one that includes a mild command. Our blue couch will soon be replaced. (declarative sentence) Please help me. (request) Let’s be quiet. (mild command) Use a period after abbreviations. Dr. (Doctor) Mr. (Mister) ft. (foot) in. (inch) Use…

The possessive case

The possessive case of a noun or pronoun indicates ownership or possession. Pronouns such as his, her, its, my, mine, your, yours, their, theirs, our, and ours are all possessive case words. Here are several rules for the possessive case. A. Most singular nouns form their possessive by adding an apostrophe and an s. (the…

the pronoun

The pronoun, the second of the eight parts of speech, is a word that takes the place of a noun. ➲In the sentence, ‘‘Felipe is an intelligent student,’’ the noun, Felipe, can be replaced by the singular pronoun he. Thus, the new sentence reads, ‘‘He is an intelligent student.’’ ➲In the sentence, ‘‘We offered the…

agreement involving prepositional phrases

A verb will agree in number with the sentence’s subject. In the sentence, ” One of the girls is counting the tickets,” the subject is one and the verb is is. Both the subject and the verb are singular. In the sentence, “Many of the girls are counting the tickets,” the subject, many, and the…