Bring Brought Brought

Bring and take take = from here to there bring = from there to here Are you going to school? Take your books, (from here to the school) Are you going to the kitchen? Can you bring me a glass? (from the kitchen to here) Bring somebody something Bring something back It’s raining. You can…

names and titles

We can use names and titles when we talk about people, and when we talk to them. There are differences. Talking about people When we talk about people, we can name them in four ways. a. First name. This is informal. We use first names mostly to talk about friends and children. Where’s Peter? He…

Go went gone

Go Go means to move from one place to another. I go to work by bike. My brother goes by car. We went to Paris last summer. Shall we go to the swimming pool today? You can go to a place on foot or in some kind of transport. To make it clear that we…

explain

After explain, we use to before an indirect object. I explained my problem to her (NOT I explained her my problem.) Can you explain (to me) how to get to your house?

Find Friendly Words in English Which You Already Know

“Everyone smiles in the same language.” – Unknown It’s wonderful to realize that whatever stage of English you are at, you already know many, many words! These words are called ‘cognates’ or friends – they are words your language shares with English. And there are usually huge numbers of them, whatever your native language is….

emphatic structures with it and what

We can use structures with it and what to ‘point out’ or emphasize particular ideas. [It is/was … that.. ] Compare: My secretary sent the bill to Mr Harding yesterday. It was my secretary that sent the bill to Mr Harding yesterday. (not somebody else) It was the bill that my secretary sent to Mr…

imperative

When we say Have a drink, Come here or Sleep well, we are using imperative verb forms: have, come and sleep. Imperatives have exactly the same form as the infinitive without to. We use them, for example, for telling people what to do, making suggestions, giving advice, giving instructions, encouraging people, and offering things. Look…

Sightseeing Holiday

Sightseeing: You may do a bit of sightseeing on holiday, or you may do a lot of sightseeing, but you will probably go to a museum or art gallery, and see or visit some of these things: Many people go on a sightseeing tour of a town (usually in a bus); they can also go…

On the phone

Starting a Phone conversation The first example is an informal situation; the second example is a more formal call. A: Hello. B: Is that Mary? [NOT Arc you Mary? or Is it Mary?] A: Yeah. B: Hi. It’s Ruth, [not I am Ruth, or Here is Ruth] Note: When British people answer the phone at…

Newspapers

Background In Britain, most newspapers are daily (= they come out / are published every day); a few only come out on Sundays. Magazines are usually weekly (= they come out every week), or monthly (= published every month). Some newspapers are tabloids (= small in size) e.g. The Mirror; others are called broadsheets (=…

surely

Surely does not mean the same as certainly. Compare: That’s certainly a mouse. (= I know that’s a mouse.) Surely that’s a mouse? (= That seems to be a mouse. How surprising!) Surely ex presses surprise. We can use surely not to show that we do not want to believe something, or find it difficult…

Accepting and refusing invitations

Accepting and refusing invitations Will you join me for coffee? – I’d love to. Thanks. – Sorry. I’m f raid I don’t have time. I’m going out for a bite to eat. Would you like to join me? – I’d be happy to. Thanks. – Sorry. I’m meeting a friend for lunch. Could we have…

at all

We often gse at all to emphasize a negative. I don’t like her at all ( = I don’t like her even a little.) This restaurant is not at all expensive. We also use at a//with hardly; in questions; and after if. She hardly eats anything at all Do you sing at all? ( =…

as and like

Similarity We can use like or as to say that things are similar. a. Like is a preposition. We use like before a noun or pronoun. [like + noun/pronoun] You look like your sister. (NOT … as your sister.) He ran like the wind. It’s like a dream. She’s dressed just like me. We use…

participle clauses

We can use a participle rather like a conjunction, to introduce a ‘participle clause’. Who’s the fat man sitting in the comer? Do you know the number of people employed by the government? Jumping into a small red sports car, she drove off. Participle clauses can have different uses. Some of them are ‘adjectival’: they…

countable and uncountable nouns

Countable nouns are the names of separate objects, people, ideas etc which we can count. We can use numbers and a/an with countable nouns; they have plurals. a cat three cats a newspaper two newspapers Uncountable nouns are the names of materials, liquids, and other things which we do not see as separate objects. We…

future: introduction

There are several ways to talk about the future in English. Present tenses When we talk about future events which are already decided now, or which we can see now ‘are on the way’, we often use present tenses. There are two possibilities: the present progressive , I am… -ing and a structure with the…

future: shall/will (predictions)

Forms [ I shall/will you will he/she/it will we shall/will they will] – + infinitive without to questions: shall/will I; will you, will he/she/it, etc. negatives: I will/shall not you will not, etc. contractions: I’ll, you’ll, he’lletc; shan’t, won’t. In modern English, I shall and I will, we shall and we will are used with…

marry and divorce

Marry and divorce are used without a preposition. She married a builder. (NOT She married with a builder.) Will you marry me? Andrew’s going to divorce Carola. When there is no direct object, we usually prefer the expressions get married and get divorced, especially in an informal style. Lulu and Joe got married last week….

short answers

When we answer yes/no questions, we often repeat the subject and auxiliary verb of the question. Can he swim?’ ‘Yes, he can. ‘ Has It stopped raining?’ ‘No, it hasn’t. ‘ Be and have can be used in short answers. Are you happy?’ ‘Yes, I am.’ Have you a light?’ ‘Yes, I have. ‘ We…