- I don’t know what I’m doing in this country.
This is very nice — how do you cook it?
Get this cat off my shoulder.
We use that to talk about people and things which are more distant, not so close.
- I don’t like that boy you’re going out with. (NOT . . . this boy . . .)
That smells nice — is it for lunch?
Get that cat off the piano.
- I like this music. What is it? Listen to this You’ll like it.
We use that to talk about things which have finished.
- That was nice. What was it? Who said that?
- Hello. This is Elizabeth. Is that Ruth?
Americans often use this in both cases.