participles: ‘present’ and ‘past’ participles (-ing and -ed)

  • ‘Present’ participles:
      breaking going drinking making beginning opening working stopping For rules of spelling,.
      When -ing forms are used like nouns, they are often called gerunds.
  • ‘Past’ participles:
      broken gone drunk made begun opened worked stopped
  • The names ‘present’ and ‘past’ participle are not very good (although they are used in most grammars). Both kinds of participle can be used to talk about the past, present or future.
      She was crying when I saw her. (past)
      Who’s the man talking to Elizabeth? (present)
      This time tomorrow I’ll be lying on the beach, (future)
      He was arrested in 1972. (past)
      You’re fired, (present)
      The new school is going to be opened next week, (future)
  • We use participles with auxiliary verbs to make some tenses.
      What are you doing?
      I’ve broken my watch.