• Sometimes we make two words into one: for example
    I’ve /aiv/ ( = I have); don’t /daunt/ ( = do not).
    These forms are called ‘contractions’. There are two kinds:
    [pronoun + auxiliary verb auxiliary verb + not]
    I’ve you’ll he’d aren’t isn’t hadn’t
    we’re they’ve it’s don’t won’t (= will not)
    The forms Ve, ‘//,’d, and ‘re are only written after pronouns, but we write ‘s ( = is/has) after nouns and question-words as well.
    My father’s a gardener. Where’s the toilet?
    The apostrophe (‘) goes in the same place as the letters that we leave out: has not = hasn’t (NOT ha’snt).
    Contractions are common in informal speech and writing; they are not used in a formal style.
  • Sometimes an expression can have two possible contractions. For she had not, we can say she’d not or she hadn’t; for he will not, we can say he’ll not and he won’t.
    In Southern British English, the forms with n’t are more common in most cases (for example she hadn’t, he won’t).
    We do not use double contractions: she’sn’t is impossible.
  • Contractions are unstressed. When an auxiliary verb is stressed (for example, at the end of a clause), a contraction is not possible. Compare:
    You’re late Yes, you are (NOT Yes, you’re )
    I’ve forgotten. Yes, I have (NOT Yes;-I’ve.)
    However, negative contractions are stressed, and we can use them at the ends of clauses.
    No, you aren’t No, you haven’t
    Contractions: pronunciation and meaning

    I’m /aim/ 1 am
    I’ve /aiv/ 1 have
    I’ll /ail / 1 will/shall
    I’d /aid/ 1 had/would/should
    you’re /jo :(!•)/ you are
    you’ve /ju:v/ you have
    you’ll /ju:l/ you will
    you’d /ju:d/ you had/would
    he’s /hi:z/ he is/has
    he’ll /hi:l/ he will
    he’d /hi:d/ he had/would
    she’s /ji:z/’ she is/has
    she’ll /fi:l/ she will
    she’d /Ji:d/ she had/would
    it’s /its/ it is/has
    it’ll /itl / it will
    it’d /itad/ it had/would (not often written)
    we’re /wi8(r)/ we are
    we’ve /wi:v/ we have
    we’ll /wi:l/ we will/shall
    we’d /wi:d/ we had/would
    they’re /6e8(r)/ they are
    they’ve /6eiv/ they have
    they’ll /6eil/ they will
    they’d /6eid/ they had/would


    aren’t / a:nt/ are not
    can’t /ka:nt/ cannot
    couldn’t /’kudnt/ could not
    daren ‘t /deant/ dare not
    didn’t /’didnt/ did not
    doesn’t /’ dAznt/ does not
    don’t /daunt/ do not
    hasn’t /’haeznt/ has not
    haven’t /’haevnt/ have not
    hadn ‘t /’haednt/ had not
    Isn ‘t /’iznt/ is not
    mightn’t /’maitnt/ might not
    mustn’t /’mAsnt/ must not
    needn’t /’ni:dnt/ need not
    oughtn’t /’o:tnt/ ought not
    shan’t /Ja:nt/ shall not
    shouldn’t /’Judnt/ should not
    wasn ‘t /’ WDznt/ was not
    weren’t /W3:nt/ were not
    won’t /waunt/ will not
    wouldn ‘t /’wudnt/ would not

    a Am not is contracted to aren’t (Ia:nt/) in questions.
    I’m late, aren’t 17
    b In non-standard English, ain ‘t is used as a contraction of am not, are not, is not, have not and has not.
    c Do not confuse it’s and its.
    d For the contraction let’s,