I’ve /aiv/ ( = I have); don’t /daunt/ ( = do not).
These forms are called ‘contractions’. There are two kinds:
[pronoun + auxiliary verb auxiliary verb + not]
I’ve you’ll he’d aren’t isn’t hadn’t
we’re they’ve it’s don’t won’t (= will not)
The forms Ve, ‘//,’d, and ‘re are only written after pronouns, but we write ‘s ( = is/has) after nouns and question-words as well.
My father’s a gardener. Where’s the toilet?
The apostrophe (‘) goes in the same place as the letters that we leave out: has not = hasn’t (NOT ha’snt).
Contractions are common in informal speech and writing; they are not used in a formal style.
In Southern British English, the forms with n’t are more common in most cases (for example she hadn’t, he won’t).
We do not use double contractions: she’sn’t is impossible.
You’re late Yes, you are (NOT Yes, you’re )
I’ve forgotten. Yes, I have (NOT Yes;-I’ve.)
However, negative contractions are stressed, and we can use them at the ends of clauses.
No, you aren’t No, you haven’t
Contractions: pronunciation and meaning
|I’ll||/ail /||1 will/shall|
|you’re||/jo :(!•)/||you are|
|it’ll||/itl /||it will|
|it’d||/itad/||it had/would (not often written)|
|aren’t||/ a:nt/||are not|
|daren ‘t||/deant/||dare not|
|doesn’t||/’ dAznt/||does not|
|hadn ‘t||/’haednt/||had not|
|Isn ‘t||/’iznt/||is not|
|wasn ‘t||/’ WDznt/||was not|
|wouldn ‘t||/’wudnt/||would not|
a Am not is contracted to aren’t (Ia:nt/) in questions.
I’m late, aren’t 17
b In non-standard English, ain ‘t is used as a contraction of am not, are not, is not, have not and has not.
c Do not confuse it’s and its.
d For the contraction let’s,