conjunctions

[clause + conjunction + clause
conjunction + clause, + clause]

  • A conjunction joins two clauses.
      I’m tired and I want to go to bed.
      I tried hard but I couldn’t understand.
      His father died, so he had to stop his studies.
      I know that you don’t like her.
      I’II sell it to you cheap because you ‘re a friend of mine.
      She married him although she didn’t love him.
      We ‘II start at eight o ‘clock so that we can finish early.
      I’d tell you if I knew.
      And, but, so and that go between two clauses.
      Most other conjunctions can also go at the beginning of a sentence.
      Because you ‘re a friend of mine, I’ll sell it to you cheap.
      Although she didn’t love him, she married him.
      So that we can finish early, we’ll start at eight o’clock.
      If I knew, I’d tell you.

    When a conjunction begins a sentence, there is usually a comma (,) between the two clauses.

  • We do not usually write the two clauses separately, with a full stop (.) between them.
    It was late when I got home. (NOT It was late. When I got home.)
    But we can sometimes separate the two clauses in order to emphasize the second, especially with and, but, so, because and although.
    James hated Mondays. And this Monday was worse than usual.
    And we separate clauses in conversation (when two different people say them).
    ‘John’s late.’ Because he was doing your shopping.
  • One conjunction is enough to join two clauses. Don’t use two.
    Although she was tired, she went to work.
    She was tired, but she went to work.
    (NOT Although shewas tired, but she went to work.)
    Because I liked him, I tried to help him.
    I liked him, so I tried to help him.
    (NOT Because I liked him, so I tried to help him.)
    As you know, I work very hard.
    You know that I work very hard.
    (NOT -As you know, that I work very hard.)
  • Relative pronouns (who, which and that) join clauses like conjunctions.
    There’s the girl who works with my sister.
    A relative pronoun is the subject or object of the verb that comes after it. So we do not need another subject or object.
    I’ve got a friend who works in a pub. (NOT . . . who he works . ..) The man (that) she married was an old friend of mine.
    (NOT -The man (that) she married Mm . ..)
    She always says thank-you for the money (that) I give her.
    (NOT . . . for the money (that) I give it her.)