all and every

All and every have similar meanings. (Every means ‘all without exception’.)
They are used in different structures:
[all + plural]
All children need love.
All cities are noisy.

[every + singular]
Every child needs love.
Every city is noisy.


We can use all, but not every, before a determiner (for example the, my, this).

[all + determiner + plural]
Please switch off all the lights.
I Ve written to all my friends

[every + singular]
Please switch off every light.
I Ve written to every friend I have.
(NOT . . . every my friend.)


We can use all, but not every, with uncountable nouns.
I like all music. (NOT . . . every music.)
We can use all with some singular countable nouns, to mean ‘every part of’, ‘the whole of. Compare:
She was here all day(= from morning to night)
She was here every day ( = Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday . . .)


At the beginning of negative sentences, we use these structures:
[Not all/every + noun + affirmative verb]
Not all Scottish people drink whisky.
Not every student passed the exam.
[No + noun + affirmative verb None of + determiner + noun + affirmative verb]
No Scottish people work in our office.
None of the students passed the exam.


We do not usually use all and every alone without nouns. Instead, we say all of it/them and every one.
‘She’s eaten ait the cakes. ‘ ‘What, all of them?’ ‘Yes, every one.