Weather conditions Look at this list of common weather words. Notice that it is very common to form adjectives by adding ‘-y’. Note: When it rains for a short period of time, we call it a shower, e.g. We had several showers yesterday afternoon. When it is raining a lot we often say it’s pouring…

10 Ways to Say You’re Tired

1. I’m exhausted.2. I’m dead tired.3. I’m pooped.4. I’m spent.5. I’m beat.6. I’m running on fumes. / I’m running on empty.7. I can hardly keep my eyes open.8. I’m off to bed.9. I’m gonna hit the sack. (hit the sack = go to bed)10. It’s bedtime for me.

any and no: adverbs

[any/no + comparative any/no different any/no good/use] Any and no can modify ( = change the meaning of) comparatives. You don’t look any older than your daughter. ( = You don’t look at all older . . .) I can’t go any further I’m afraid the weather’s no better than yesterday. We also use any…

5 Phrases for Hot Weather

1. It’s nice and warm today.2. It’s absolutely boiling! (boiling = extremely hot)3. We’re having a real heat wave. (heat wave = many consecutive days of hot weather)4. The sun’s really strong today.5. It’s hot and humid.

Proud of, not for

Proud of, not for Don’t Say:He’s very proud for his promotion. Say:He’s very proud of his promotion. Note:We say take ;aj pride in : A craftsman takes a pride in hts work.

Wrong sequence of moods

Wrong sequence of moods Don’t Say:If you would/’d do me this favour, I will/’ll be very grateful to you. Say:If you would/’d do me this favour, I would/’d be very grateful to you. Or: If you will/’ll do me this favour, I will/’d be very grateful to you.

Using the land

Ground and soil When we walk, our feet are on the ground (= the general word for the surface of the earth). For the top part of the ground where grass and flowers grow, we use the word soil. There were no seats in the park, so we had to sit on the ground. The…

Using the future in the if clause instead of the present tense

Using the future in the if clause instead of the present tense Don’t Say:If he’ll ask me, I will/’ll stay. Say:If he asks me, I will/’ll stay. Note:But the future tense may be used in an if clause expressing a request: If you will/’ll give me some money I will/’ll buy you a drink. Use…

every day / everyday

Everyday (one word) is an adjective to describe something else: It’s easy to get stressed out by everyday problems. (everyday describes problems) These shoes are great for everyday wear. (everyday describes wear) When talking about how frequently something occurs, use every day (two words): I study English every day. I walk my dog every day.


LIST OF SYNONYMS (A & B ) Word Synonym Word Synonym Abroad Overseas Away Absent Admit Confess Awful Terrible Agree Consent Baby Infant Alike Same Backbone Spine Allow Permit Beautiful Pretty Almost Nearly Begin Start Amount Quantity Behave Act Angry Mad Belly Stomach Annoy Irritate Big Large Answer Reply Blank Empty Appear Seem Brave Bold…

Obligation, need, possibility and probability

Obligation Must is an instruction or command; that is why we see it on notices, e.g.Dogs must be kept on a lead. Cars must not be parked here. Have (got) to says that circumstances oblige you to do something. Often, the two meanings overlap and there will be a choice of how to express the…

Compound nouns

Formation A compound noun is formed from two nouns, or an adjective and a noun. Here are some common examples. One word or two? Compound nouns are usually written as two words (e.g. credit card), but sometimes they are joined by a hyphen (e.g. baby-sitter), or written as one word (e.g. sunglasses). Unfortunately there is…

Omission of the word old from age

Omission of the word old from age Don’t Say:My sister is fifteen years. Say:My sister is fifteen years old. Note:We can also Say: My sister is fifteen years of age, or simply. My sister is fifteen.

Accept for Agree

Accept for Agree Don’t Say:The teacher accepted to go with us. Say:The teacher agreed to go with us. Note:We agree with a person, but to a thing. I agree with Luke, but I can’t agree to this plan .. Accept means to take something that is offered to you. Maria accepted the bunch of flowers….


Fractions We say fractions like this: 1/8 one eighth , 3/7 three sevenths 2/5 two fifths, 11/16 eleven sixteenths We normally use a singular verb after fractions below 1. Three quarters of a ton is too much. We use a plural noun with fractions and decimals over 1. Decimals We say decimal fractions like this:…

Confusion of gender

Confusion of gender Don’t Say:The door is open, please shut her. Say:The door is open, please shut it. Note:It’s possible to use masculine or feminine pronouns when inanimate things are personified: England is proud of her navy. In English only names of people and animals have gender (masculine or femmine) Inanimate things are neuter, and…

borrow and lend

– borrow something from somebody – lend something to somebody – lend somebody something Borrow is like take. You borrow something from somebody. – I borrowed a pound from my son. Can I borrow your bicycle? Lend is like give. You lend something to somebody, or lend somebody something (the meaning is the same). –…

Compound adjectives

A compound adjective is an adjective which is made up of two parts and is usually written with a hyphen, e.g. well-dressed, never-ending and shocking-pink. Its meaning is usually clear from the words it combines. The second part of the compound adjective is frequently a present or past participle. A large number of compound adjectives…

if: ordinary tenses

[if+ clause, + clause clause + if+ clause] An if-clause can come at the beginning or end of the sentence. If you eat too much you get fat. You get fat if you eat too much. We can use the same tenses with if as with other conjunctions. If you want to learn a musical…

Between and Among – Among

Between and Among – Among Don’t Say:Divide the apple between you three. Say:Divide the apple among you three.

Formal and Informal English

Most English that you learn can be used in a wide range of situations. But you will also hear or see language that is formal or informal, and sometimes very formal or very informal. You need to be more careful with this language because it may not be suitable in certain situations. (They are marked…

the object of the preposition

The object of the preposition is the noun or pronoun that follows a prepo-sition and completes the prepositional phrase. The prepositional phrase can also includemodifiers. In the sentence, ‘‘The orange juice box was in the new refrigerator,’’ the prepositional phrase is ‘‘in the new refrigerator.’’ This phrase answers the question ‘‘Where (is the orange juice…


There are many different words used to describe a particular quantity of something. Usually the word is joined to the noun it describes with ‘of’. Containers (e.g. a bag) and contents (e.g. of shopping): With uncountable nouns: When we use uncountable nouns (e.g. advice), we sometimes want to talk about one of something. We cannot…

Transitive and intransitive verbs

A transitive verb is an action verb that has a direct object. Remember that a direct object (a noun or a pronoun) answers the question Whom? or What? after the action verb. Thus, in the sentence, ‘‘The clown threw the toy into the air,’’ the verb, threw, is transitive because (A) it is an action…

hundred / hundreds

Use hundred when there is a specific number, and use hundreds when you don’t know or can’t count how many. This rule also applies to thousand/thousands and million/millions. This skeleton is thousands of years old. This skeleton is three thousand years old. When saying numbers, always use the singular form: 250 = Two hundred and…

adjectives ending in -ly

Many adverbs end in -ly for example happily, nicely. But some words that end in -ly are adjectives, not adverbs. – The most important are friendly, lovely, lonely, ugly, silly, cowardly, likely, unlikely. – She gave me a friendly smile. Her singing was lovely There are no adverbs friendly or friendlily, lovely or lovelily, etc….

Leave for Let

Leave for Let Don’t Say:Penny didn’t leave me to get my book. Say:Penny didn’t let me get my book. Note:Let means to allow Leave means to abandon or to go away from: Do you leave your books at school?

10 Phrases for Telephone Calls

1. Hi, this is Jane.2. (formal) May I speak with John Smith?3. (informal) Is John there?4. I’m calling about…5. I’m returning your call.6. (formal) One moment, please.7. (informal) Hang on a sec.8. He’s not here. Would you like to leave a message?9. Could you ask him to call me back?10. Thanks for calling.

The subject misplaced in indirect questions

The subject misplaced in indirect questions Don’t Say:The teacher asked me what games did I play? Say:The teacher asked me what games I played. Note:In indirect questions follow the usual order of word?: subject first and then verb.